Acute Care

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Laboratory Values

Complete Blood Count (CBC)

White Blood Cells
Reference Values:
5.0-10.0 109/L
Leukocytosis: > 11.0 109/L
Leukopenia: < 4.0 109/L
Neutropenia: < 1.5 109/L
Moderate: 0.5-1.0 109/L
Severe: < 0.5 109/L
Platelets
Reference Values:
140-400 k/uL
Thrombocytosis: > 450 k/uL
Thrombocytopenia: < 150 k/uL
Hemoglobin
Reference Values:
Male: 14-17.4 g/dL
Female: 12-16 g/dL
(Note: Values are slightly decreased in elderly.)
Polycythemia
Anemia
Hematocrit
Reference Values:
Male: 42-52%
Female: 37-47%
(Note: Values are slightly decreased in elderly.)
Polycythemia
Anemia

Electrolyte Panel

Sodium (Na)
Reference Values:
134-142 mEq/L
Hypernatremia: sodium level > 145 mEg/L
Hyponatremia: sodium level < 130mEq/L
Potassium (K)
Reference Values:
3.7-5.1 mEq/L
Hyperkalemia: serum potassium levels > 5.5 mEq/L
Hypokalemia: serum potassium levels < 3.5 mEq/L
Calcium (Ca)
Reference Values:
8.6-10.3 mg/dL
Hypercalcemia
Hypocalcemia
Chloride (Cl)
Reference Values:
98-108 mEq/L
Hypercalcemia
Hypocalcemia
Phosphate (PO4)
Reference Values:
2.3-4.1 mg/dL
Hyperphosphatemia
Hypophosphatemia
Magnesium (Mg)
Reference Values:
1.2-1.9 mEq/L
Hypermagnesemia
Hypomagnesemia

Kidney Function

Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
Reference Values:
6-25 mg/dL
Abnormal kidney function
Abnormal kidney function
Serum Creatinine
Reference Values:
Male: 0.7-1.3 mg/dL
Female: 0.4-1.1 mg/dL
Abnormal kidney function
Abnormal kidney function

Endocrine

Glucose
Reference Values:
70-100 mg/dL
Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG):
90-130 mg/dL
Criteria for the Diagnosis of Diabetes
FPG > 126 mg/dL or
2-hour Plasma Glucose > 200 mg/dL
Hyperglycemic: > 200 mg/dL
Hypoglycemic: < 70 mg/dL
Hgb A1C
Normal: < 5.7%
Pre-diabetes mellitus: 5.7 - 6.4%
With diabetes mellitus: > 6.5% (poor glucose control)
Diabetes mellitus
Thyroxine (T4)
Reference Values:
Total 4.5-11.5 μg/dL

Triiodothyronine (T3)

Reference Values:
80-200 ng/dL

Thyroid – Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

Reference Values:
0.3-3.0 U/mL
Note:
Increased TSH and decreased T4 = thyroid disease;
decreased TSH = pituitary disease
Hyperthyroidism: increased T3 and/or T4
↑&↓ Hypothyroidism: increased TSH, decreased T3 and/or T4

Acid-Base Disorders

Normal Values: pH 7.35-7.45 PaO2 80-95 mmHg PaCO2 37-43 mmHg HCO3 20-30 mmol/L
Respiratory Alkalosis pH ≥ 7.45
PaCO2 ≤ 35 mmHg
Respiratory Acidosis pH ≤ 7.35
PaCO2 ≥ 45 mmHg
Metabolic Alkalosis pH ≥ 7.45
HCO3 ≥ 30 mmol/L
Metabolic Acidosis pH ≤ 7.35
HCO3 < 24 mmol/L

Liver Function/Hepatic Panel

Serum Albumin
Reference Values:
3.5-5.2 g/dL
Abnormal liver function
Abnormal liver function
Serum Prealbumin
Reference Values:
19-39 mg/dL
Abnormal liver function
Severe protein depletion: 0-5 mg/dL
moderate protein depletion: 5-10 mg/dL
mild protein depletion: 10-15 mg/dL
Serum Bilirubin
Reference Values:
0.3-1.0 mg/dL< br />
Critical value: > 12 mg/dL
Abnormal liver function
Ammonia (NH3)
Reference Values:
15-60 μg/dL
Abnormal liver function

Lipid Panel

High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL)
Reference Values:
Males ≥ 40 mg/dl
Females ≥ 50 mg/dl
Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL)
Reference Values:
< 100 mg/dl
Borderline high: 130-159 mg/dl
High: 160-189 mg/dl
Very high: ≥ 190 mg/dl
Triglycerides
Reference Values:
< 150 mg/dl
Borderline high: 150-199 mg/dl
High: 200-499 mg/dl
Very high: ≥ 500 mg/dl
Total Cholesterol
Reference Values:
< 200 mg/dl
Borderline high: 200-239 mg/dl
High: ≥ 240 mg/dl

Bleeding Ratio/Viscosity

Serum Viscosity
International Normalized Ratio (INR)
Reference Values:
0.8-1.2
Therapeutic range for stroke prophylaxis: 2.0 - 2.5
Therapeutic range (VTE, PE, patients with atrial fibrillation): 2.0 - 3.0
Therapeutic range for patients at higher risk (prosthetic heart valves): 2.5 - 3.5
Therapeutic range for patients with lupus anticoagulant: 3.0-3.5
Patient at higher risk for bleeding: > 3.6
Serum Viscosity
Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (Heparin)
Reference Values:
21-35 seconds
> 70 seconds signifies spontaneous bleeding
Therapeutic for effectiveness of anticoagulant: 2-2.5 times normal range (60-109 seconds)
Serum Viscosity
Prothrombin Time (Coumadin)
Reference Values:
11-13 sec
High risk for bleeding into tissue; utilize caution and discuss with interprofessional team: > 25 sec

Cardiovascular-Specific Labs

B-Type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP)
Reference Values:
< 100 pg/mL
Class I – Cardiac disease, but no symptoms and no limitation in ordinary physical activity (i.e. no shortness of breath when walking, climbing stairs, etc.): BNP 100–300 pg/mL
Class II – Mild symptoms (mild shortness of breath and/or angina) and slight limitation during ordinary activity.: BNP > 300 pg/mL
Class III – Marked limitation in activity due to symptoms, even during less-than-ordinary activity (i.e. walking short distances [20–100 m]). Comfortable only at rest.: BNP > 600 pg/mL
Class IV – Severe limitations. Experiences symptoms even while at rest.: BNP > 900 pg/mL
Creatinine Kinase (CK)
Reference Values:
Normal: 30-170 U/L
Adult Males: 52-336 U/L
Adult Females: 38-176 U/L

Source: "Laboratory Values Interpretation Resource". Academy of Acute Care Physical Therapy. 2017. [1]